Educators in Chicago Digitize the WWI Homefront

Teachers in Chicago

Last week we welcomed educators to our annual Primarily Teaching summer institute in Chicago to explore documents on the homefront of World War I.  These teachers delved into the holdings of the National Archives at Chicago, and found some great documents on this topic appropriate for classroom lessons and activities.

The WWI homefront is a broad subject, but these teachers stepped up to the challenge, and selected documents on food regulation and substitution, and those investigating Bolshevik labor activists, espionage and sedition, and detained enemy alien cases.

Supportive of the food substitution effort, Cracker Jacks advertised  their use for replacing nuts in cookies and cakes.  Page 2 of The Real Food Value Pamphlet from Rueckheim Bros & Eckstein, 1918. From the Records of the U.S. Food Administration.

Supportive of the food substitution effort, Cracker Jack was advertised as a replacement for salted nuts, and as a base ingredient for cookies and cakes.
Page 2 of The Real Food Value Pamphlet from Rueckheim Bros & Eckstein, 1918.  From the Records of the U.S. Food Administration.

As the documents from this workshop show, WWI was a battle on both the field and at home.  While soldiers risked their lives in trenches across the sea, the rest of America was vigilant in the fight for both food and labor.  Wheat, sugar, and meat were being substituted out of meals all over the country in order to give these precious food items to “our boys overseas.”  The regulation of food was an important effort that depended on homes, restaurants, and even hotels to cut back on consumption.

Leo Dergis of Detroit was found guilty of circulating socialist and anti-draft literature. Page 1 of Indictment of Leo Dergis, 6/1917.  From the Records of District Courts of the United States.

Leo Dergis of Detroit was found guilty of circulating socialist and anti-draft literature.
Page 3 of Indictment of Leo Dergis, 6/1917. From the Records of District Courts of the United States.

Then, on the production side of things there was a sense of increased scrutiny between workers.  This watchfulness was especially directed towards labor activists and those in support of socialist agendas, as anyone threatening to disrupt the efficiently run manufacturing plants was considered a danger to wartime production.

Thanks to the educators and the National Archives staff who assisted with the document scanning and uploading, these documents on the WWI homefront are now digitized and available for anyone to read and use on DocsTeach, our online tool for teaching with documents.

And, better yet, the teachers spent time during the workshop creating interactive DocsTeach activities using their uploaded documents. So not only are the documents accessible online, but some great ready-made student activities on the WWI homefront are as well! (If you complete the free registration to set up an account, or log in to your existing account, you will see all of the activities created with a document when you look at a specific document’s webpage.)

The teachers hard at work hunting for documents in the Chicago Archives.

The teachers hard at work hunting for documents in the National Archives at Chicago.

This summer, Chicago is one of five Primarily Teaching locations across the country.  Each of the summer institutes highlights the National History Day theme of “Exploration, Encounter, Exchange in History,but individually chose a specific case study to explore under the broader topic.

The educators who participated in Chicago did a wonderful job researching the theme. And because of their hard work, documents like those on the wheatless and meatless meals of the World War I homefront are readily available to the classroom.

Primarily Teaching is made possible in part by the National Archives Foundation, through the support of Texas Instruments and the William Randolph Hearst Foundation.

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New NASA Documents Digitized by Teachers in Atlanta

Last week, we welcomed teachers to Atlanta for our annual Primarily Teaching summer institute.  These educators explored the holdings of the National Archives at Atlanta for classroom-suitable documents, and ended up discovering NASA documents on really interesting space topics like the SkyLab 3 zero-gravity student experiment.

Design for the Student Experiment's Spider Compartment. Page 1 of the I-V-23 Skylab Student Project: Web Formation in Zero Gravity, 1973. From the Records of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. National Archives Identifier: 20150116

Proposed design for the spider compartment.
Page 4 of the I-V-23 Skylab Student Project: Web Formation in Zero Gravity, 1973. From the Records of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Available on DocsTeach.

The year 1973 found two spiders, Arabella and Anita, blasting off into space.  The SkyLab 3 spider experiment started with a curious high school student, Judy Miles, who wondered if spiders could spin webs in zero gravity.  NASA was intrigued with the idea, and promptly began working on the logistics of sending spiders into weightlessness conditions.

Both Spiders were successful in spinning webs, but only Arabella returned to Earth to keep spinning. Anita, Job Done, Dies Aboard Skylab, 9/19/1973. From the Records of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration National Archives Identifier: 20150119

Both spiders were successful in spinning webs, but only Arabella returned to Earth to keep spinning.
Anita, Job Done, Dies Aboard Skylab, 9/19/1973. From the Records of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Available on DocsTeach.

Arabella and Anita spent a few days of sloppy web-weaving adjusting to their new conditions in space, but by the end of their mission, they were spinning webs in the same patterns they had spun back at home, proving that spiders really can spin webs in zero gravity—and just as well as they can on Earth!

Because of the hard work of these educators, and the staff who assisted with scanning the documents, anyone curious about the SkyLab spiders can now find these documents on DocsTeach, our online tool for teaching with documents.

Atlanta is just one of our Primarily Teaching locations this summer.  Each workshop focuses on a specific topic, but all fit into the National History Day theme of Exploration, Encounter, Exchange in History.” The research in Atlanta was a great success, and thanks to the effort of these teachers, documents on the SkyLab 3 student experiment and other space endeavors can now be accessed and used for teaching and classroom activities.

The National Archives at Chicago held Primarily Teaching last week too, digitizing documents related to the WWI homefront, so check back soon to hear more about their findings!

Primarily Teaching is made possible in part by the National Archives Foundation, through the support of Texas Instruments and the William Randolph Hearst Foundation.

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The First National Park

Today’s post comes from Holly Chisholm, social media intern in our Education and Public Programs Division.

With the end of school, and the beginning of summer, we’ll be switching up some of our posts for the season.  Look for document spotlight posts like this one to learn about some of the interesting documents, photographs, and other records we have at the National Archives.

Yellowstone Park Act

“Dedicated and set apart as a public park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people.”
First page of the Yellowstone Park Act, 3/1/1872. From the General Records of the United States Government. National Archives Identifier: 596351

Today’s spotlight document is the 1872 Yellowstone Park Act.  This public law was an ingenious American invention, born from a desire to protect the natural wonders of the West.  In 1864, the State of California had reserved Yosemite as parkland, but the Federal Government officially made the land at the head of Wyoming’s Yellowstone River the first national park by signing this act into effect.

The 1872 Yellowstone Park Act highlights the borders of Yellowstone National Park, and protects the wildlife, natural wonders, and resources of the area from being spoiled by settlement or profit-seekers.  It also stipulates accommodations for visitors to be built on property, and that the proceeds of such places return directly into the park for road upkeep, as well as for nature’s protection.

Yellowstone National Park is home to beautiful canyons, plains, and one of the world’s largest collection of geysers—the most famous being the one pictured here, Old Faithful.

Yellowstone National Park is home to beautiful canyons, plains, and one of the world’s largest collection of geysers—the most famous being the one pictured here, Old Faithful.
Photograph of Old Faithful Geyser Erupting in Yellowstone National Park, 1942. From the Records of the National Park Service. National Archives Identifier: 519994

Most importantly, though, this act dedicates the land to the people.  Generation after generation, we can still view America’s natural curiosities and untouched landscapes thanks to the establishment of the first national park.

You can see more about the Progressive Era or our national parks on DocsTeach, our online tool for teaching with documents.

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Congratulations, Barrie Moorman, NHD Teacher of the Year!

Today’s post comes from Missy McNatt, education specialist at the National Archives in Washington, DC, and DC National History Day Coordinator.

NHD logoCongratulations to Barrie Moorman, teacher at EL Haynes Public Charter School in Washington, DC, for being named the Patricia Behring Senior Division Teacher of the Year at the National History Day (NHD) Awards Ceremony today!

Ms. Moorman won the DC Patricia Behring Teacher of the Year Award at the DC NHD competition at the end of April. She then competed against affiliate winners from across the nation to win the national title for 2015. Along with the honor of being selected as the teacher of the year, as the national winner, Ms. Moorman receives $10,000.

Why is Ms. Moorman an outstanding teacher? First and foremost, she cares about her students. And she believes in her students.

National History Day at EL Haynes is not reserved for the advanced students. Rather it a program for the students who failed a year of history, scored in the bottom 50% of their class, and had learning differences. Ms. Moorman believes that high expectations and requiring high-level products from all students is the way to make a difference. The students receive support from start to finish with their NHD projects.

When the students shared their projects at their school and city competitions, the pride in their work was palpable. For many students, this was the first time they had completed a major project working over months rather than just a few days.

According to Ms. Moorman: “During the quarter in which we focused on NHD, we had our highest course grades of the year and lowest rates of failure. Students started to mentor their peers on other research projects, and for many of them, taking on leadership roles was atypical; they were proud to show off their new knowledge and able to help others to catch up. It was a transformative experience for the students and for our school.”

The National Archives supports the National History Day program nationwide in a variety of ways. Thousands of students from across the nation use primary sources from the National Archives in their research. The National Archives at Philadelphia manages the Philadelphia city competition; and the National Archives in Washington, DC, facilitates the year-long DC National History Day program. Other National Archives locations offer NHD student and teacher workshops and host competitions. And many National Archives employees serve as judges, from the local level to the national NHD competition in College Park, MD, in June each year.

National Archives’ History Day activities are made possible in part by the National Archives Foundation, through the support of the William Randolph Hearst Foundation.

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Congress Creates the Bill of Rights App: Android and PDF Release

The Center for Legislative Archives is pleased to announced that our mobile app for tablets, Congress Creates the Bill of Rights, is now available for Android devices and as a PDF. The app situates the user in the proposals, debates, and revisions that shaped the Bill of Rights. Its menu-based organization presents a historic overview, a detailed study of the evolving language of each proposed amendment as it was shaped in the House and Senate, a close-up look at essential documents, and opportunities for participation and reflection designed for individual or collaborative exploration.

Congress Creates the Bill of Rights App

We also have online resources available for teachers and students to facilitate learning with the app.

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Summer Programs in DC: Cursive, Immigration, July 4th, Genealogy, Magna Carta and a Sleepover!

If you’ll be near Washington, DC, join us for our upcoming programs and professional development opportunities.

Magna Carta Family Day
Saturday, June 6, 10 a.m.–1 p.m.

Magna Carta

Read the translation from Latin.

Celebrate 800 years of Magna Carta!  Meet Eileen Cameron and Doris Ettlinger, the author and illustrator of Rupert’s Parchment: Story of Magna Carta, a new book perfect for ages 6-11.  Participants will engage in hands-on activities as they discover more about this document that helped shaped how we think about rights.

Magna Carta is widely viewed as one of the most important legal documents in the history of democracy. With it, the King of England placed himself and England’s future sovereigns and magistrates within the rule of law. The copy housed at the National Archives was created in 1297 and placed on loan to the National Archives as a gift to the American people by David M. Rubenstein.

Saving Cursive: New tools in the fight for Handwriting
Thursday, June 25, 1–3 p.m.

George Washington’s nomination of Alexander Hamilton and others

George Washington’s nomination of Alexander Hamilton and others, September 11, 1789. From the Records of the U.S. Senate

Digital technology and time pressures in today’s classroom raise questions about whether teaching cursive handwriting is relevant or worthwhile.  However, growing research says cursive provides benefits that keyboarding does not and linking handwriting to academic success.  Linda Shrewsbury, creator and president of CursiveLogic, will demonstrate her intuitive approach for teaching cursive handwriting. Consider this event one step towards preserving cursive for the next generation.

This program is presented in partnership with Fahrney’s Pens.

Independence Day Celebration 
Saturday, July 4

Join us July 4thFlags on National Archives Building as we celebrate our nation’s birthday! Exhibits, including the Rotunda for the Charters of Freedom, which houses the Declaration of Independence, Constitution, and Bill of Rights, will be open 10 a.m. – 5:30 p.m. From 11 a.m.–4 p.m., enjoy hands-on family activities, including story time, crafts and more!  Meet John and Abigail Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Hancock, Ned Hector, Thomas Jefferson, and George Washington.

This program is made possible in part by the National Archives Foundation through the support of the William Randolph Hearst Foundation and John Hancock Financial.

History, Heroes, and Treasures SleepoverSleepover in the Rotunda
July 25-26

Kids ages 8-12 along with their adults will participate in activities, talk with historical figures from history, sleep in the Rotunda near the Declaration of Independence and Constitution, and make memories to last a lifetime. Learn more.

Genealogy Camp for Kids Ages 12 and Up
July 20-24, 9 a.m.–12 p.m.

Girl in Exhibit

This hands-on camp will introduce the basics of genealogy research and help kids discover how to use the resources of the National Archives to be history detectives into their past!
Learn more.

This program is made possible in part by the National Archives Foundation through the support of the William Randolph Hearst Foundation and John Hancock Financial.

Immigration Workshop: Professional Development for Teachers
Thursday, August 6, 10 a.m.–1 p.m.

Ellis Island Menu

Menu for the Immigrant Dining Room on Ellis Island, 1/21/1920. From the Records of the Immigration and Naturalization Service.

Join us as we explore the topic of immigration using primary sources from the National Archives. During this three-hour workshop, you will examine a selection of high quality facsimiles of documents from Ellis Island, Angel Island, and other immigration stations across the United States.

Together we will brainstorm innovative means to introduce these rich sources into your teaching. The workshop will also include a tour of the National Archives’ new permanent exhibit Records of Rights. To register or for more information, email education@nara.gov with the subject line: Immigration Workshop.

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Summer Professional Development

We still have a few spots available for summertime PD around the country.


Image of Wong Kim Ark who was denied reentry to the United States upon his return from an 1894 visit to China

Denied reentry to the United States upon his return from an 1894 visit to China, San Francisco–born Wong Kim Ark was detained by the collector of customs in San Francisco. Wong filed a habeas corpus action against his detention. (Image from Departure Statement of Wong Kim Ark, 11/5/1894. From the Records of District Courts of the United States. National Archives Identifier: 2641490)

Teacher Professional Development at the National History Day National Contest

Teaching Historical Inquiry using Exploration, Encounter, and Exchange through Multiple Lenses of Immigration

June 15, 9–11:30 a.m. at the University of Maryland

How is history researched and written? Do students know how to read historical texts? How can you help your students construct a historical narrative and interpret historical themes? How can you enhance interest in a national topic by making local connections?

Join the National Archives for a session that will explore Chinese Immigration and the Ganges slave ship case. The session will focus on specific areas of instruction that are tied to the Core Curriculum and C3 Framework such as close reading of primary sources to develop sequencing skills and understanding of source perspective, using secondary sources to corroborate and diversify the inquiry process, understanding historic impact and context, developing an analytical thesis, and presenting a case study to demonstrate the power of informed action. This case study will show the importance of using multiple historical sources and connecting local history to larger national and international narratives.

Teachers will receive digital documents from the immigration case studies, tutorials for DocsTeach.org (our online tool for teaching with documents), sample lesson plans, and resource sheets.

Register online.


Primarily Teaching DC 2014 Participants

Primarily Teaching

Our summer institute for educators on using historical documents in the classroom. 

Each location will explore a specific topic using original documents in our archival holdings:

  • The National Archives at Atlanta (Morrow, GA): To the Moon!: NASA Records,
    June 22–26
  • The National Archives at Chicago: The U.S. Encounters a World War: The WWI Homefront in the Midwest, June 22–26
  • The National Archives at Seattle: Effects of Lewis and Clark on Modern Native America, July 6–10
  • The Herbert Hoover Presidential Library in West Branch, IA: Case Studies from the Hoover Library, July 20–24

Participants will produce a learning activity on DocsTeach.org, and will have the opportunity to continue researching the case study or to independently research another topic.

Learn more and apply online.


2015 American Studies Summer Institute

The American Studies Summer Institute at The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum

Nature and Nation Transformed: Rethinking the Role of the Environment in America’s Past and Present

July 6–17, 2015 (8:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m.)

Join us this summer for an intensive two-week program of thought-provoking lectures and discussions led by distinguished scholars and guests. The American Studies Summer Institute, an annual program co-sponsored by the University of Massachusetts Boston and the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, offers educators and graduate students the opportunity to explore in depth a topic drawn from American history, politics, culture, or social policy.

This year’s program, held at the Kennedy Library, will ask the following questions: How have the environment, geography, and climate shaped American lives and thought and, in turn, how have Americans transformed the physical world around them? How does investigating the interdependence of nature and human activity deepen our understanding of American history?

Learn more and register online; the deadline is May 29.

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Thanks, Teachers! Great finds!

During Teacher Appreciation Week, we give thanks to teachers around the world for all their hard work educating and guiding students!

Primarily Teaching DC 2014 Participants

Primarily Teaching at the National Archives Museum in Washington, DC

We’d like to give a special thanks to the teachers who digitized some really cool documents from the holdings of the National Archives as part of our Primarily Teaching Summer Institute.

Female Drill Operator

Female Drill Operator at Watertown Arsenal,
1918. From the Records of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance. National Archives Identifier: 7450283. This document was digitized by teachers in our Primarily Teaching 2013 Summer Workshop in Boston.

For the last two summers, educators researching at our locations around the country — including Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, and Washington, DC — have found hundreds of written documents, maps, photographs, and more that make great teaching tools.

Teachers in Chicago

Primarily Teaching in Chicago

Our “digitization scholars,” as we call them, focus on documents that can be used in the classroom to demonstrate a particular historical concept or event, and ones that won’t be too difficult or overwhelming for students.

We’re looking forward to seeing new finds from this summer’s class of Primarily Teaching teachers as they research topics like: NASA, the WWI Homefront, the Effects of Lewis and Clark on Modern Native America, Chinese Immigration, and topics from the Herbert Hoover Library.

 

Thanks also to the National Archives Foundation, with the support of Texas Instruments, by whom Primarily Teaching is in part made possible.

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Space Race Teaching Activities

This Friday, May 1st is National Space Day.  How can you celebrate this day that highlights the achievements and benefits of space exploration with your students?

Apollo 11 Commemorative First Day Issue Stamp

Apollo 11 Commemorative First Day Issue Stamp from Postcard, 1969. From the White House Staff Member and Office Files (Nixon Administration) Collection. National Archives Identifier 1634230.

Visit DocsTeach, with its numerous primary sources related to the history of NASA and American space exploration, all from the holdings of the National Archives.

These primary sources come in a variety of forms, including written documents, photographs, and videos. Several DocsTeach activities teach students about the pioneering Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs. These early manned space programs set the foundation for the modern space program.


The Mercury Program

Astronaut Scott Carpenter Looking inside his Aurora 7 Spacecraft

Astronaut Scott Carpenter looking inside his Mercury spacecraft capsule “Aurora 7″ prior to launch on May 24, 1962. From the Records of the U.S. Senate. National Archives Identifier 7430760.

The political tension between the United States and the Soviet Union after World War II led to the Cold War and launched a Space Race between the two countries. This tension was the impetus behind the Mercury program. The United States wanted to prove it not only had the technology, but was capable of sending man into space.

The Space Race: Project Mercury activity allows older students to investigate the Space Race by analyzing a memorandum written by Mercury 7 astronauts to the Mercury program director.


The Gemini Program

Astronaut Edward H. White II's Space Walk on Gemini IV

Astronaut Ed White was the first American to walk in space during the Gemini IV mission on June 3, 1965. From the Records of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. National Archives Identifier 4728365.

In a speech at Rice University in Houston, Texas, in September of 1962, President John F. Kennedy promised that the United States would send a man to the moon by the end of the decade.  With this promise, the Gemini program’s goal was to learn new techniques that would later help the United States in its exploration of the moon.

The Process of Early Space Flight: The Gemini Program gives younger students the opportunity to investigate the process of early space flight by sequencing a series of photographs from the Gemini missions.


The Apollo Program

Astronaut Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin, Jr. Posing on the Moon Next to the U.S. Flag

Astronaut Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin, Jr. posing on the moon next to the American flag on July 20, 1969. From the Records of the U.S. Information Agency. National Archives Identifier 593743.

Early American space exploration culminated with the Apollo program reaching the moon. In Landing a Man on the Moon: President Nixon and the Apollo Program, older students will be able to analyze documents to understand the impact and significance of the Apollo program. Students are urged to question if the Apollo program ended the Space Race.

By 1975, Americans and Russians partnered in the Apollo-Soyuz program to further explore space. In Apollo-Soyuz: Space Age Détente, older students can continue learning about the complex relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union and the role that space exploration played in the past.

 

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Art as Propaganda in World War I

Today’s post comes from National Archives volunteer Cynthia Peterman.

Two new WWI-related teaching activities on DocsTeach.org introduce students to artists who were employed to show the war to Americans back home: Artists Document World War I and WWI Propaganda and Art.

Doughboy Fighting through Barbed Wire Entanglement, 12/21/1918. From the Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. National Archives Identifier 12060634.

Doughboy Fighting through Barbed Wire Entanglement, 12/21/1918. From the Records of the Office of the Chief Signal Officer. National Archives Identifier 12060634.

During the Great War, the government attempted to influence public opinion about the goals of military intervention in this European conflict. A large segment of the U.S. population was opposed to America’s entry into World War I. Therefore, the government attempted to influence popular opinion by sending American artists overseas to depict the conflict in ways that would remind Americans what their boys were fighting for.

Students today are buffeted by many types of media that vie for their attention. Advertisements (both physical and digital), music, and social media are all part of our media-saturated environment. They seek not only to claim the attention of young people, but attempt to influence their opinions about culture, politics, and more. In modern times, the word “propaganda” has become synonymous with falsehood, distortion and misrepresentation. As a result, many students become cynical about what they hear and see.

Before using these activities it is important to consider the following questions:

  • Is all propaganda misleading?
  • Do all forms of media create false impressions in order to influence the viewer?
  • What do we want students to know about why it is important to have a knowledgeable citizenry?

In “Artists Document World War I,” we are introduced to Walter Jack Duncan, one of eight artists who travelled to France to document the experience of U.S. troops in battle. Duncan’s drawings show both the enormity of the force sent overseas, as well as the results of war in the French countryside.

Segment of Walter Jack Duncan's drawing “Newly Arrived Troops Debarking at Brest"

This activity hones students’ attention in on a single drawing, the debarkation of American troops in 1918. Students are asked to think critically about the image, to explore the mood as well as the historical reality it depicts, and to consider the role of art in interpreting a scene.

Using the zoom/crop tool, students look at a small piece of the drawing and hypothesize what the image depicts before seeing it as part of the entire drawing. The activity also asks students to consider the role of art and photography as they influence the viewer’s opinion.

General Policy Reference the Work of Official Artists inside activity

WWI Propaganda and Art” presents students with five historical documents and two drawings (by WWI artists William James Aylward and Harvey Thomas Dunn) in order to consider how the military and government communicated their goals to the artists, the difference between how art and photography present a scene, as well as the dangerous conditions in which the artists were placed.

Using the Making Connections tool, students read historical documents, such as memos and letters, in order to identify the often conflicting aims of the artists, the military, civilian agencies and government agencies in depicting the war through art.

In addition, this activity compels students to ask important questions such as: Why did the military choose to send artists to the war zone when photographers could capture the same images? When the Acting Adjutant General says the “official artists [should] be employed in making pictures of subjects that cannot be adequately covered by the camera,” students need to think about how drawings and paintings create more drama and humanize the scene more than do photographs.

Finally, in our own day we expect reporters to travel to war zones (as well as scenes of disaster) to bring us our news. The World War I artists had little military training to prepare them. This activity pushes students to weigh putting people in hazardous situations in order to quench our hunger for information.

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